Cladonia rangiferina is a lichen species with antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Its extract constitutes a natural source of vitamin D and has been traditionally used as a remedy to treat colds, fever, cough, arthritis and hepatic infections. Some more benefits are: -The main role of vitamin D is the regulation of calcium’s homeostasis, which is important for the development and growth of bones, the regulation of immune function, as well as the regulation of protein synthesis. -Vitamin D is also important for the maintenance and normal functioning of the musculoskeletal system. -It enhances intestinal calcium and phosphate absorption, promoting the mineralization of bone matrix, the calcium uptake into the muscle cell, the phosphate transport across the cell membrane, the muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. -Vitamin D is considered to be responsible for the regulation of gene expression in up to 5% of the entire protein-encoding genome. -A deficiency of vitamin D has been associated with reduced immunity, the appearance of muscle atrophy and an increased risk of developing infections, such as respiratory tract infections, hypertension, autoimmune diseases, such as diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis, atopic dermatitis.